Chinees bulkvervoer

Olie werd rond de 8e eeuw vervoerd in bulk met een omgebouwde Newchwang-jonk. Oorspronkelijk was dit type schip ontwikkeld voor het vervoer van water. Arabische en Perzische geschriften[1] vermelden het transport van olie van Bakoe(hoofdstad van Azerbeidzjan) naar Bagdad voor verwarming.

De Newchwang jonk was revolutionair, aangezien hij al was uitgerust met een “expansion trunk”. De eerste echte olieschepen hadden dus “expansion trunks”.[2] Die expansion trunks zijn een Chinese uitvinding en werken volgens het principe dat de ruimte boven de tank uitzet onder druk.

Een vloeistof kan niet uitzetten of krimpen door druk, maar wel door temperatuurstijging of -daling. Zonder lege ruimte boven de vloeistofspiegel zal een vat dus barsten als gevolg van de toegenomen druk bij een temperatuurstijging.

Het volgende probleem dat zich aandiende was het klotsen van de olie. De vrije beweging van het vloeistofoppervlak oefent een kracht uit op de wanden van de tank als het schip stampt of slingert. Die krachten kunnen een probleem opleveren voor de structurele sterkte van het schip.

Naarmate de breedte van de tank toeneemt en dus ook het vrije vloeistofoppervlak vergroot, vergroot ook dit probleem. Men vond er geen goede oplossing voor. Daarnaast neemt door het naar de lage zijde stromen van de vloeistof de scheepsstabiliteit af.

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